Canadian History 1201 Notes
July 1st, 1867
Factors Leading to Confederation
and Expansion in the United States
The American Civil War: Britain appeared to support the South in its efforts – the
North won. The British North
American Colonies feared that the US (now controlled by the government of the
North) would take revenge for Britain’s interference.
Ideas about the United States attempting to take control of the British
Colonies to the north caused great fear – it was thought that since the US was
now decidedly one country, it would begin an expansion campaign to take over the
entire North American Continent.
Purchase of Alaska: The
US acquired ownership of Alaska from the Russian Government.
This increased the fear that the US would soon attempt a northern
expansion, beginning in the West and Central parts of the continent.
In addition, the “Gold Rush” of the late 1800s (i.e. the Klondike)
brought hoards of American people into British Columbia.
the Civil War, Irish American troops invaded parts of British North
America. The Fenians, as they
were called, were a large number of Irish immigrants to the US who fled
Europe to escape British rule. They
were attacking British North America because they thought that if they
took over the colonies, they could hold them hostage and release them only
in exchange for the freedom of their country from oppression.
Fenian Raids led to the opinion that the colonies could better defend
themselves if they operated as a unified country.
raids also seemed to be supported by the US media at the time and the
British North American Colonies thought that the US Government ought to
have halted the attacks against them – again, the colonies felt
threatened by the US.
Trouble With Trade
Reciprocity Treaty – 1854: This
treaty allowed free trade among the US and the British North American
Colonies and also, it allowed each party to fish in the waters of the
other. In the early 1860s,
rumours circulated that the US was not going to renew this 10 year
contract – free Trade with the US was going to end.
The colonies, which had thus far not been operating on a free trade
system with each other, now saw each other as their only hope –
free trade would be easier if they were all part of the same country.
Need For Rail Links
the notion that they would have to have free trade among themselves, the
British North American Colonies saw the need for faster and more efficient
modes of transportation of people and goods across the long distances
at each colony building the railway and having them linked together were
pitiful at best – if they wanted to have a railway of their own that
stretched the distance from the East to the West coast of the continent,
they would have to pool their resources (i.e collaborate and share the
expenses – that is, become a unified country).
Little Englanders: a group of
English citizens that believed that the British North American Colonies
were a drain on Britain’s resources.
It was their opinion that the colonies should look out for their
make matters worse, during the same time that this group was beginning to
gain support for its “cause,” the Fenians were raiding the colonies
– this certainly did not help matters for the colonies in terms
All of these factors contributed to the
growing idea that the British North American Colonies were in great danger.
They feared take over by the US, which was heightened by the Fenian
Raids; they were about to lose their free trade contract with the US and they
had none with each other; they required (but did not have) the ability to
transport goods quickly across the continent and they were losing their support
system in Britain. They had to do something.
The Struggle for Unity:
The Charlottetown Conference of 1864
Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island were planning to meet and
discuss the possibility for a union of their colonies.
politicians (the leaders of the central British North American Colonies)
requested the opportunity to join in the discussions with the proposal of an
even greater union between the colonies.
conference lasted about a week and as a result of it, the maritime colonies
set aside the notion of their previously proposed union in order to further
discuss the Canadians’ proposal of unity.
The Quebec Conference of 1864
Prince Edward Island
Canada East & West
on one main point: “the union
must be a strong one that could not be broken by any one province” (11).
Resolutions – the plan for the new partnership of the colonies.
resolutions had to be taken away from the conference and presented to each
colony by their representative deligates.
Seesaw in New Brunswick
Leonard Tilley supported Confederation.
made fun of the proposed union, saying that the subsidy which was to be
provided to each province in the new union resulted in each person in NB
being sold for $.80 each.
first vote resulted in failure.
was very important because without NB, Confederation could not work!
-- NB was the only land link between Canada and the other Atlantic
traveled all over the colony, spreading the “truth” about Confederation.
other major factors that contributed to the successful re-vote:
US ended the Reciprocity Treaty with the BNA colonies.
The British Government sent a letter to the colony urging them to join
with the other colonies.
The Fenians attacked NB in 1866. (The Fear Factor!!!)
Success in Canada West
politicians (eg. George Brown) gave impressive speeches to the Canadian
Six points supporting the union:
Confederation would change five unimportant colonies in to a great and
It would remove the barriers to trade among the colonies and provide a
market of four million people.
Canada would become the third largest sea-going nation in the world.
A strong new country would encourage settlers from other parts of the
Provision of other markets (since Reciprocity with the US had been
In case of war, a nation is stronger than a single colony.
The vote in 1865 won by a
majority of 73%!
Debate in Canada East
of Confederation (eg. A.A. Dorion) held that French speaking people were
being sold out. He and others
argued that the French people would not be represented well in the new
government because the representation was to be based on population.
majority of French Canadians were convinced to vote for the union by George-Itienne
Cartier who traveled around promising that they would not lose their
language, their religion, or their schools.
warned that if a union with the other BNA colonies was not sought, Canada
East would be “swallowed-up” by the United States.
Roman Catholic Church also urged the French Canadians to join Confederation.
of the French Speaking representatives from Canada East and West voted for
Division in Nova Scotia
Charles Tupper was excited about the union but found great opposition when
he returned to his colony.
Howe (picture on page 14) was
one of the greatest opponents to the idea of the union.
in NB, the notion of being sold-out to Canada in terms of the subsidy
($.40/person in NS) was central to the opposing argument.
said that “Tupper has sold out to central Canada for a grant of $.40 per
person – the price of a sheepskin.”
like Cartier and others in the other colonies, went around personally
proclaiming the good that Confederation would do for the colony.
NS was very much divided.
of the Fenian Raids on NB began to circulate and fear that the same thing
would happen in NS.
began to hint that they might reconsider if a better deal was made with
called a meeting of the delegates from NB and NS and Canada to be held in
London, and in the end, despite strong opposition from Howe and his
counterparts, the people voted for Confederation.
Rejection in Newfoundland and Labrador
flat-out rejected the idea of Confederation.
Carter became premier of NF and although he was one of the delegates that
attended the Quebec Conference of 1864 and was in favour of confederation
himself, he was unable to persuade the people to join him.
were very proud of their ties to England and the fact that they were the
very first BNA colony.
Bennett, a St. John’s merchant claimed that there would be taxes on
fishing supplies, etc and that the goods entering the colony from Canada
would be so cheap that the NF products wouldn’t have a chance to sell.
also argued that NF’s young men would have to go and fight Canada’s wars
coffin bearing the label of confederation was paraded through the streets of
St. John’s when the union was rejected – the anti-confederationists even
went so far as to burry the coffin at a mock funeral.
For all intents and purposes, confederation was dead.
Rejection in Prince Edward Island
people of PEI held that since the idea of the union had been “born” at
Charlottetown, it ought to become the capital city of the new Country.
that their interests would not be represented well in the House of Commons
(they were to have only 5 out of 194 members representing them).
talks about the railway were of little interest to PEI because it is an
land on PEI was operating on a system of control that was similar to
Feudalism and no mention of buying the land from the lords in Britain was
made until the last minute – apparently, a little too late.
The London conference of 1866
BNA colonies still belonged to Britain so they needed its permission before
forming their own country.
was in favour of the union (remember the Little Englanders) – it was hoped
that if the colonies were united in Confederation, Britain would no longer
have to support them.
BNA Act was introduced into British Parliament – this Act marked the
official creation of the Dominion of Canada.
Provinces constituted this new dominion: NB, NS and the two Canadas, renamed
Ontario and Quebec.
BNA Act was built on the Seventy-Two Resolutions set down in the Quebec
Conference of 1864.
1, 1867 Queen Victoria signed
the proper documents and the BNA Act came into effect.
Models for Government
Confederation, the BNA Colonies had responsible government.
Confederation, they had two models: The
British Model and the American Model.
of choosing one over the other, they took advantage of their choices and
decided to take the best aspects of each model, all the while, retaining the
the British Model, they chose to create a parliamentary government.
the American Model, they chose the idea of a federal union.
The Greatest Land Deal in History
confederation, Canada wanted to expand to the west.
Land was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Co. and was purchased by Canada.
this land was the Red River Settlement.
sale took place in January 1969 – Canada would not be able to claim
ownership until December of that same year.
region was to become what we now call The North-West Territories.
Trouble At Red River
Metis lived on the land and worked as traders – they formed the
“backbone” of fur trade in the West in “the early days.”
the purchase of the land (i.e. their land) their entire culture and heritage
was now at risk.
Background to Rebellion
of the Land Deal, the Metis would be without any sort of government for
almost an entire year.
from Canada arrived on the Metis land in June, 1869.
land was to be marked in squares, as opposed to the narrow strips that the
Metis were used to.
Metis had no proof of ownership for their lands and property.
of the new railway began to circulate (it was said that it would run right
though buffalo country).
Metis looked to 25a. Louis Riel for leadership.
October 11, 1869, Riel and some others stopped a crew of surveyors on a
The Red River Rebellion, 1869-70
formed the National Committee of the Metis.
function of this committee was to protect the lands of the Metis.
McDougall was sent to govern the territory.
committee blocked his travel to Fort Garry and told him to return to Ottawa
because no one asked them about being governed by him.
formed a Provisional Government which represented the Metis in dealings with
the Canadian Government.
The Thomas Scott Affair
people of the Red River Settlement who opposed Riel caused riots in the
area. One of these people was
was placed in jail.
people of Red River drew up a Metis Bill of Rights which outlined their
demands. These indicated
concerns very similar to those expressed by the colonies during negotiation
were considered fair in Canada – things seemed to be going well.
managed to get in trouble in jail and ended up in front of a firing squad.
was not received well in Canada.
was the exception – it agreed with the actions of the Provisional
feelings between French and English Canadians were aroused.
Aftermath of the Rebellion
Provisional Government and
Canada agree on the Manitoba Act.
July 15th, 1870,
the Red River Settlement entered into Canada.
The small area around Fort
Garry became known as Manitoba –
Canada’s Fifth province!
The Metis began to move
westward in search of their former way of life – in essence, they were being
pushed (or nudged) off their land.
Riel was happy with the
Manitoba Act – he had founded a new province; representation for his people;
land; schooling; and protection for their language.
Riel was ready to relinquish
control of the Red River settlement to Canada.
J. A. Macdonald sent troops
to Red River just in case there was more trouble with Riel and his associates.
Not only would the presence
of these soldiers from Canada signify order in the new province, it would also
reinforce the message that Canada was now a unified nation to the United States.
The soldiers took about four
months to reach Manitoba because there was no railroad – they had to cut their
As the got close to the new
province, Riel feared that he might be taken prisoner and punished, so he fled
to the United States.
British Columbia Joins Confederation
May 10th, 1870
– three delegates from Victoria left to meet with Macdonald for the purposes
of discussing entry into Confederation with Canada.
They wanted Responsible
Government: this meant that the
representatives elected to the assembly would be responsible to the people of
the province, not to the upper house or to Britain.
If the people became unhappy with the politicians, they could be voted
out of office.
They also wanted to be linked to the main body of Canada (they
suggested a wagon trail).
Macdonald basically went
bananas over the idea (he had always dreamed fanatically of building a railway).
Canada accepted BC’s
On July 20, 1871, British
Columbia became the sixth province of Canada.
Prince Edward Island Joins Confederation
Although PEI flatly refused
Confederation in 1867, they were beginning to reconsider their rashness.
Like Canada, the Colony of
PEI was also in the process of building a railway – as a result, it was in
serious financial trouble.
They faced one of two
options: higher taxes or Confederation – they chose Confederation.
Canada was still concerned
about an attack from the south (US; Fenians) and PEI could easily be used as a
platform for such an assault – they were still listening when PEI wanted to
July 1, 1873 (exactly 6
years after Confederation proper) PEI joined with Canada.
Canada bought PEI’s debts,
purchased the land from the Feudalist landlords in Britain, and guaranteed a
full time ferry and telegraph service.
1880 – Britain presented
the Artic Islands to Canada.
The Treaty of Washington, 1873
Canada began negotiations
with the United States (and Britain) to re-establish a good trading
This was accomplished by the
signing of The Treaty of Washington, after which Canada was assured that
it was free from the fear of American attacks.
This allowed Canada to focus
its full attention on expansion.
The Treaty allowed the US
access to Canadian and Newfoundland waters for fishing.
In return, Canada could send
fish to the US without taxes or tariffs.
This was a bum-deal for the
maritime provinces and Newfoundland, so they began to complain.
1877 – the US agreed to
pay $5.5 million to Canada and $2.5 million to Newfoundland.
These payments irritated the
US, so they canceled that part of the treaty in 1885.
The Dream of a Railway
before Confederation in 1867, J.A. Macdonald had been pushing for the
railway. First his reasons were
trade and defense, and now, with the effort of expanding the country
westward, he had another reason to support his passion.
building of the railway was not going to be easy – much was needed to even
think of beginning: surveyors had to plot the best course for the railway
(through all manner of natural obstacles), bridges and tunnels had to be
designed and created and thousands of people would be needed to actually lay
the track! Not to mention that
all of this would be (to say the least) expensive!
Allan and some associates formed the Canadian Pacific Railway Company to do
about Allan’s monetary “contributions” (i.e. bribes) to Macdonald’s
government leaked out to the public – this event became known as the
a result of the Pacific Scandal, Macdonald and his government were forced to
resign in 1873.
Mackenzie and the Liberal government moved into power and the idea of the
railway was all but dropped.
The National Policy and the Canadian Pacific
a few years later (1878), Macdonald and the Conservatives were re-elected
and moved back into power.
put forward the infamous National Policy which was intended to solve
the country’s problems. The
following was what they proposed:
cheaper American goods out of Canada.
Canadians to buy goods made in Canada.
the rich prairie lands with settlers (remember the poster at the beginning
of this chapter?).
these settlers to buy/sell with eastern Canada.
(yep, you guessed it), help to make all of this possible by building an
east-west railway! J
Not everyone was happy with
this idea – some provinces (eg. NS) felt that it would be cheaper to trade
with the US as they had always done.
This actually helped the
National Policy come into effect – it reinforced the need for a cheaper and
easier way to trade east-west in Canada.
Another company was formed
to build the railway… it was given the very original name of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company. (losers) J
Part of the deal with this new company was that after the railway
was finished, the company would own and operate it and the government would give
the company 10 million ha of land (which would later be sold to settlers).
This contract would be good
for 20 years.
Also, the company would
never have to pay taxes on building materials or on any of its property.
In return, the company
promised to complete the railway within 10 years.
Nothing was easy about
building the railway – Canada’s geography is about as diverse as its people!
W.C. Van Horne was hired to supervise the construction – he was
a very talented and experienced railroader.
His opinion of at least one
part of the Canadian wilderness was that it was “two hundred miles of
The work was dangerous and
deadly – some claimed that “every kilometer of tunnel and track was stained
with blood along the British Columbia section of the line.”
The Role of Chinese
Thousands of Chinese workers
were “brought in” to work on the British Columbia section of the railway.
Like the poor whelps in the
Export Processing Zones in places like Malaysia today, the Chinese workers were
exploited by the CPR Company because they were willing to work hard for half the
wages that the other workers expected (what a great deal, eh?).
As a reward for their
willingness to work, they were often given the most difficult and the most
dangerous jobs – almost 200 of them were killed in railroad construction accidents.
Without them, BC would not
have had a railway (either that, or we would have had to risk our own
lives – I wonder how many accidents would
have been allowed to happen then).
As always, some people were
ignorant – they objected to the Chinese because they were different.
As a result, they often mistreated and abused the Chinese workers.
After the railway was
completed, and they were no longer needed to absorb the accident
factor and the expensive task of building the railway, most of the Chinese were
unable to return to their homeland (probably because they didn’t get paid
then, they have been rejected but in spite of that, they have become an integral
part of Canada (or so the book says… if this were the case, would we still
refer to them as they?).
The Last Spike!
on November 7th, 1885.
Columbia was now linked to Canada and it had fulfilled on of the conditions
for joining Confederation.
would now be easier for settlers to get to western Canada.
would now be easier/faster/cheaper.
The North-West Rebellion of 1885
Metis who felt stifled by life as Canadians in the new province of Manitoba
went further west looking to return to their traditional way of life.
they began to experience the same problems that the encountered at Red River
– surveyors began to arrive and the railway, carrying thousands of
settlers, was not far behind.
Metis, along with other Native nations and settlers of the North-West
petitioned the Canadian Government for
help. They wanted:
proof that they owned their land;
food and money in exchange for use of their lands;
the settlers involved wanted higher prices for their wheat and a stronger
voice for the region in Ottawa.
Before Canada could respond,
the Metis had already persuaded good old Riel to return and lead them.
Riel decided to rely on the
methods he used fifteen years earlier in Red River – old problems = old
The problem was that many
things had changed. For example, a
new police force was in place; also, there was a railroad to transport troops
from the east.
Whereas he had the support
of the RC Church at Red River, his call to arms in the North-West lost their
support (Christianity and violence have not been good bedfellows since the
Inquisition, Imperialism, the invasion of South America by the Spanish, etc.).
In March, 1885, Riel’s
forces defeated a group of police in a “skirmish.”
This was the beginning of the North-West Rebellion.
Ottawa wasted no time in
responding – it sent 5000 troops to the North-West in less than 10 days.
The rebellion lasted for
less than four months – Riel and his forces were defeated.
Riel became a prisoner of
the Canadian government and faced charges of treason for taking up arms against
The Trial of Louis Riel
has been called the most important trial in Canadian History.
settlers were chosen for the Jury – all were English Protestants.
followers feared that the trial would not be fair (I wonder why…)
lawyers wanted him to plead insanity but he would not because he viewed it
as a disgrace.
Canadians remembered Riel’s hasty execution of Thomas Scott and wanted the
equivalent for Riel.
other people, Riel was a hero.
jury was only out for 1hr, 20min before sentencing Riel to death.
was executed on November 16th, 1885.
The Manitoba Schools Question 1890
When Manitoba became a
province, most of the people living there were French speaking Catholics.
This changed as many English
people settled there over the next 20 years (part of the Westward expansion). Soon, they outnumbered the French.
The Manitoba Schools Act was
passed in 1890.
This act removed Religion
and the French language from Manitoba Public Schools.
Catholics were free to send
their children to a denominational school, but the government would no longer
pay for it.
Because each province was
given rule over its own educational system in the BNA Act, protests to the
Canadian government were useless.
When Wilfred Laurier was
elected to the office of Prime Minister in 1896, he came up with a solution:
RC schools would not be entirely supported by public funds but religious
instruction would take place for part of the school day.
French speaking teachers would be provided in schools where there where
10 or more French students were enrolled.
Laurier’s compromise was
short lived as the French rights were later taken away and English became the
official language of the public school system in Manitoba.
Laurier and the Liberal
party governed the country for 15 years after the election of 1896.
Clifford Sifton was employed
to find ways of drawing settlers into Canada West.
The prairies were ripe… they needed someone to farm them!
Sifton attempted to persuade
settlers from other countries to move to the prairies.
Advertising campaigns in
Britain, Europe, and the United States described the opportunities available in
Eventually, the plan worked
and people came to the west in “hoards and droves.”
Other factors that helped
Canada’s immigration plan:
Not much land left for farming in the US
Demand for Canadian wheat in Europe increased
Canada now had a railroad for trading and shipping
Technological innovations began to arise that would make farming a much
Millions of Europeans were looking for a place to go anyway.
Sifton’s policy was rather
selective – it alienated/restricted entry of non-white and non English people,
including many minority groups.
The Dawn of the 20th Century
was a relatively new country and as it began to move westward, following the
dream of its early government, new innovations in technology began to
improve the quality of life for everyone – at least those who could afford
were still widely used by everyone, from farmers to undertakers.
Even fire engines were often drawn by a team of horses.
Although technology was beginning to change the way people moved from
place to place, most of them still depended on the good-old horse and
Railway – as we saw in the previous chapter (the picture of Calgary on
page 40), the innovation of electric rail cars was beginning to come into
use in the more urbanized areas.
were becoming more and more popular, especially in cities.
They were cheaper to buy and operate than horses (you don’t have to
feed a bike). Not only did it afford people another option of
transportation, but for those who had no other option (because of money
problems, etc) it solved problems like the trip to and from work – that
is, poor people could now afford to live further away from their places of
were also coming into use. The
early automobiles were known as horseless carriages because they
looked very much like the carriages that were drawn by horses (indeed, the
first cars were built by carriage makers – except for the engines of
course). They served the same
function but did not require the labour involved in keeping horses.
Plus, they represented money – then, just like now, people
tended to weigh happiness and success in life in terms of money and material
Ford founded the Detroit Automobile Company in 1899.
Moodie of Hamilton was the first motorist in Ontario – he bought
his car for $1000 in 1898.
the 1920s, cars became more accessible to the average person because of
the introduction and development of the assembly line.
Wright brothers flew for 12 seconds at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1903.
Graham Bell formed the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) in Baddeck
1908 Casey Baldwin, a member of the AEA flew a place called the Red Wing.
It traveled 97m.
the summer of 1909, Douglas McCurdy was making flights of 32 kilometers in
the Silver Dart. This
airplane was the finest craft of its day (see picture on page 52).
and Baldwin tried to convince the Canadian Government that planes would be
useful in warfare but after the Silver Dart crashed in flight trials, the
idea was dropped – bright idea, right? J
years later, the Canadian government asked McCurdy to become the director of
government aircraft production during WWII.
and more people were getting telephones – communities used party lines
where more than one household used the same line.
Calls were transferred through a communication exchange… “hello?
increased the level of communication between people over long distances and
offered women another “choice” in terms of a career outside of the home.
received the first radio signal sent across the Atlantic Ocean in 1901.
the first 20 years of the 20th century, people relied primarily
on their traditional methods of entertainment. The technology behind the gramophone and the silent
films of the early years did not offer much of a spectacle.
the 1920s however, with the advent of electronic recording and movies that
contained audio-tracks as well as video, the path to what we call
entertainment today was being stepped upon for the first time.
innovations had a great impact on every facet of our lives as a culture.
Bathrooms, electric washing machines, sewing machines, hearing aids,
vacuum cleaners, etc. all entered into use for those who could afford them.
and other items were ordered from the Eaton’s Catalogue – it was kind of
like an early form of the internet (minus the pornography).
Growth of the Nation – Immigration and
is the movement of people into a country from other lands.
2 million people immigrated to Canada in only ten years (1901-11).
These immigrants came from many different places, primarily the US,
Britain and Europe.
more people came, the ethnic diversity also increased –
by 1912, almost 1/5th of the population was neither
British nor French in origin.
per Macdonald’s and Laurier’s plan, most of the settlers moved into the
1905, Alberta and Saskatchewan became the newest members of confederation.
1912, the boundaries of Manitoba, Quebec, and Ontario were extended.
is the movement of people into cities and towns.
was of great concern to Canada in the early 20th century – with
all of the new immigrants arriving, places to live were very difficult to
come by. Moving to Canada to
find a better life was the goal of the immigrants and many of them decided
to settle in cities. Conditions
were at the poverty level as overcrowding and unemployment quickly became a
Equality and Inequality
the turn of the century, the distribution of wealth was outlandishly unfair.
The rich were very rich and the poor were very poor.
the newest conveniences and technologies were at the fingertips of those who
could afford them, the majority of people in Canada were still without
electricity, modern cooking appliances, etc.
had to shop everyday because there was no means for preserving perishable
food items; laundry was done by hand; etc.
immigration was a good thing for Canada, it wasn’t always a good thing for
the immigrants! Most of
them came to Canada seeking a better life – we can infer from this that
their former lives were pretty crappy.
Thus, when they arrived here in the land of opportunity (to borrow an
American phrase) they had very little of their own.
Because of this, they had to live in the poorest of conditions and
experienced a lot of prejudice on the part of the already prosperous people
natives, although they were here before everyone else also had a
pretty tough time. If you
remember the Red River and North West Rebellions, you will note that they
were all about the Natives’ (particularly the Metis) attempts to protect
their rights. They had reason
for concern – their way of life was disappearing; they were forced into
boxes (i.e. reserves); diseases were brought to their culture by the
immigrants from Britain, Europe and the US – diseases that the natives’
immune systems were unable to cope with; etc.
Women Organize for Change
mentality of the time was that men were people and women were baby-makers.
Their main function was to cook, clean and pump out children.
Any sign of independence, including going out in public on her own,
was a sign of disgrace for a proper woman about 100 years ago.
options for women who wanted to work were very limited: the poor worked as
servants and/or factory workers, etc. while the rich attended school and
became either nurses or teachers.
were changing around the world and Canadian women began to follow suit.
Stowe formed the Toronto Women’s Literary Club in 1876.
Hoodless formed the first Women’s Institute in 1897.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and other organizations like it
began to influence the way that women were allowed to partake in society –
one member of the WCTU: Nellie McClung, for example, led in the fight for
Profile of a Prime Minister
into the House of Commons in 1896
Canada’s 7th Prime Minister
in power for 15 years. No prime
minister except for Macdonald had been in power longer.
Those 15 years were known as the “Golden age of Laurier.”
Canada’s first French Canadian Prime Minister.
he was in school, he studied English and became fluently bilingual.
studied law at McGill University in Montreal.
in 1864 and gave the valedictory address.
1887, he became the leader of the Liberal Party and was known as an
tried to see both the English and French Canadian points of view.
He also wanted both language groups together and treated fairly.
a new Prime Minister, in a new age, prosperity was returning to Canada,
factories began to hum, people had jobs, and there were markets for Canadian
though Canada had a new Prime Minister, it was struggling to find its
identity. Problems even arose
with Britain and the United States, which caused the French and English to
divide at home.
Laurier died on 17th of February, 1919 – 8 years
after he was defeated in 1911. He
was never to become Prime Minister again.
Imperialism and French Canadian Nationalism
– a policy of establishing colonies away from the homeland and building an
English Canadians supported the imperialist movement.
Canadians felt a stronger sense of pride and loyalty in their own Culture
such as the execution of Louis Riel and the Manitoba Schools Act made many
French Canadians feel that their culture and rights were threatened in
French gained strength, especially Quebec, and were determined to preserve
their culture and language.
The Boer War
out in 1899, this created a crisis in Canada that was centered around
in South Africa.
because the British were after their gold and diamonds.
tensions increased, the Boers declared war on Britain.
directly concern Canada but because of our ties with Britain, they called
for us to help them.
Canadians agreed but the French Canadians did not.
Laurier played a big part in this too, he sent 7300 volunteers and spent 2.5
million dollars in their support.
fully satisfy anyone, imperialists felt that Canada had let Britain
down. French Canadians felt
that Laurier had done too much.
The Naval Crisis
was facing a serious crisis by 1909.
was a very real possibility of a war between Britain and Germany.
They were in a race to have the largest navy in the world.
British wanted Canada and other colonies to contribute funds to help
build more ships for the British navy.
Britain would soon fall behind in the naval race with Germany without
help from its colonies.
offered a compromise again – the Naval Service Bill.
would have a navy of its own under the control of the Canadian government.
would be voluntary in the navy.
naval bases would be established at Esquimalt, British Columbia, and
Halifax, Nova Scotia.
storm of protest greeted Laurier’s Naval Service Bill.
and some French Canadian Nationalists complained that the policy meant that
Canadians could be sent anywhere at anytime to fight the British Imperialist
wars. Also, the conservatives,
led by Robert Borden, attacked the Bill.
conservatives accused Laurier of setting up a “tin-pot Canadian navy”
when an immediate contribution to the British navy was urgently needed.
Canadian – American Relations – The
Alaska Boundary Dispute of 1903
dispute developed over the border between Alaska and Canada.
US had purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867.
deal included the “panhandle” which was the strip of coastline extending
south from Alaska as far as Prince of Whales Island off the coast of BC.
the Gold Rush in 1898, thousands of prospectors flooded into the Klondike
area of the Yukon Territory.
Canadian and American merchants wanted to take advantage of this new
said that the parts of the Skagway, Dyea, and Juneau belonged to them, but
the Canadians argued that these parts belonged to Canada.
owned these parts could charge customs taxes on all goods going into the
area and all the gold going out.
Canadians also argued that the boundary should be measured from the
mountains nearest the ocean.
were determine to keep as much land as they could.
President Theodore Rosevelt threatened to send troops to Alaska to
protect the American claim.
the dispute was submitted to a court of six judges.
a full month of discussion, the tribunal decided 4:2 against Canada.
the decision was announced, Canadians were outraged.
thought that they had been bullied by their more powerful southern neighbour.
reaction in Vancouver was so hostile that the Victoria Colonist
reported on 23rd of October, 1903, that some citizens had pledged
“they will not sing God Save the King again until England had
justified itself in the eyes of Canada.
1909, an International Joint commission was set-up to settle peacefully any
future disputes between Canada and the US.
this commission would help solve future controversies in a friendly manner,
Canadian resentment toward both the US and the British.
were becoming more determined that Canada must make its own decisions in the
Murder at Sarajevo
Franz Ferdinand and the Archduchess Sophia were visiting Austria-Hungary
because the Archduke would someday be its Emperor.
10:00 am, someone threw a bomb, which exploded against the hood of the
limousine that the Archduke was in, but he wasn’t hurt (he was angry).
were assured that there would be no more danger my the mayor and the chief
minutes after the car continued on its way to the governor’s palace,
Gavrilo Princip (a 19 year old) stepped up by the car and shot two shots:
one hitting the Archduke in the throat and the other hitting Sophia in the
both died on the way to the hospital.
Princip swallowed poison but it didn’t work and then he and five others
were rounded up by police.
were members of a Serbian terrorist group known as the Black Hand.
didn’t know the kind of effect that those shots would have on World
Causes of World War I
assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the Archduchess Sophia was
the immediate cause of WWI.
Britain, France and Russsia VS. Germany and Austria-Hungary.
France and Germany were in conflict before, so they looked for other
countries to be their allies.
Alliances are formed when countries band together against a common
France, Russia and Britain were the Tipple Entente or The Allies.
Germany, Austira-Hungary, and Italy were the Tripple Alliance or The
Central Powers but Italy joined the Tirple Entente when the war started.
The alliances were dangerous because they increased fear and suspicions
among rival nations, and a war between two countries would likely involve many
Nationalism is a feeling of deep loyalty to one’s people and
Europe nationalism in the n nineteenth century was a powerful force which
drew more than 200 small states together in 18th century Germany.
The early 20th century was when nationalism was causing great
problems in that some people would take any action to support their nation, such
The Black Hand was a terrorist group that was composed of Serbs
and Bosnians that thought Bosnia should break away from Austria.
A terrorist organization supports violent action to gain its goals, and
they do not always represent the wishes of all people in their country.
The Austrians were also expressing feelings of nationalism when they
opposed the attempts of Bosnia to break away from their empire.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
imperialism gained momentum because the nations of Europe became more
European countries wanted to gain control of lands away from home and
building huge empires, which would be a source of raw goods, and they also gave
the home country glory and military strength.
Many countries had control of colonies (page 80: 2-3 paragraphs under
Imperialism led to quarrels among the grate powers of Europe in all parts
of the world, and arguments over colonies and trade threatened peace.
Militarism is the belief in the power of strong armies and navies to
Preparing for war was thought to be the only way to guarantee peace, and
if a nation is strong, no enemy would dare attack it.
If war did occur, the militarized nation would be ready.
This thinking led to an arms race in Europe, which was where each country
produced steel battleships, high-powered cannons, and explosives.
The size of armies and navies determined who would be the most powerful
nation in Europe.
Germany built a huge navy, causing Britain to become nervous because
Britain depended on its giant navy to “rule the waves,” and guarantee the
safety of the island.
Germany then challenged Britain’s supremacy at sea, and the nations of
Europe were becoming more suspicious and alarmed by the others’s military
The headline on newspapers
across the country was War!
Britain declared war against
Germany, leaving Canada and the other countries of the British Empire
automatically at war.
British colonies were not
independent, they were subject to the rules of the home country.
Laurier announced that
Britain wouldn’t fight themselves, they would have the help of Canada.
Henri Bourassa also stated
that it was Canada’s duty to help. The
French and English Canadian’s finally seemed to agree.
When the call came out for
recruiting in Canada, offices were flooded with volunteers for the war at a pay
of $1.00/day. People thought that
the war would end quickly.
Within 2 months, 30 000
Canadians were sent, however the war did not end until 4 years later, with the
involvement of another 400 000 Canadians.
Battles on the Western Front
WWI, over 400 000 Canadians went to battle with their allies.
Their contribution will never be forgotten in such battles as Ypres,
the Somme, Vimy Ridge and Passchendale.
is an ancient city in Belgium.
time poison gas was ever used in battle.
The men who didn’t have gas masks or who did not use a urine soaked
cloth to breathe through choked, gagged, gasped, coughed and died.
Canadians had make-shift gas masks and survived the attack.
than 5200 Canadians died during this battle.
Battle of the Somme
July 1, 1916 at 7:30am, the British army consisting of Canadian and
Newfoundland troops also went over the top.
men never made it out of the trenches and most were killed by the shower of
bullets in no-man’s land.
nightfall 57 470 men were dead – the most ever in warfare in a single day.
troops were mowed down at Beaumont Hamel.
Over 90% were killed or wounded.
it came to an end, casualties for both sides reached 1.25 million; 24 000
were introduced for the first time in war. It helped to win the war.
April 9, 1917, Canada won its most celebrated battle.
forces had a good vantage point – they could control all the surrounding
areas. Many attempts were made
by British and French troops but were unsuccessful.
months of preparations 100 000 Canadians (four divisions) launched an
attack. In a few hours, they
had captured the ridge.
ground, guns, and German prisoners were taken that day than the first 2 1/2
years of war.
Canadians won the Victoria Cross at Vimy.
the fall of 1917, soldiers fought in Passchendaele, which was once beneath
the sea. The shelling destroyed
drainage ditches and the land was waterlogged.
were very frustrated over trying to advance through the mud.
of soldiers and horses who slipped into the mud were sucked down and
drowned. Tanks also got bogged down quickly.
Canadians lost their lives.
7km of land they won was soon won back by the Germans.
The War in the Air
1914 when war broke out, the air plane was a new and unproven invention.
had no air force of its own.
who wanted to fly joined the British Royal Flying Corps.
The planes they flew were usually single-seaters and flew maximum
speeds of 95-125km/h.
first, planes were unarmed, but some pilots carried pistols, rifles, and
shotguns. Others caught in
battle threw bricks or links of rusty chain at the propellers of opposing
planes to bring them down.
superior plane called the Fokker, which was developed by the Germans, had
machine guns attached to its wings.
also had gas-filled balloons called Zepplin Dirigibles or Airships, which
were used for bombing raids. Eventually,
both sides used them.
1917, the Allies had developed new flying techniques and a new fighting
plane. Their technique was to
run into the enemy’s plane, which caused many pilots to be killed.
In 1916, it was said that the average life of a pilot was three
Richthofen, a pilot known as the Red Baron, downed 80 planes in his career.
the seat of the Red Baron’s plane is displayed at the Royal Military
Institute in Toronto. You can
put your finger through the bullet hole in the seat.
Bishop, a young pilot, became a Canadian hero during WWI because of his
shooting and flying abilities.
a boy in Ontario, he practiced shooting at moving targets in the woods.
first day behind the front line, he knocked down a plane.
In one five-day period, he destroyed 13 planes.
The War at Sea
submarines prowled the seas since the beginning of the war.
downed 200 British ships by 1914 (including passenger ships).
sinking of the Lusitania (a passenger ship), which had Americans as
over ½ of its passengers when it went down, turned the United States
against Germany and brought it into the war.
Britain and Germany had strong fleets of battleships.
Only once did these two great fleets of ships meet in battle – off
the coast of Denmack at Jutland.
(or U-Boats as they were often called) were Germany’s most deadly weapons
was sinking British and other boats at an average of 160 ships per month.
The U-Boat Menace
thousand Canadians served in the British Royal Navy, Royal Navy Canadian
Volunteer Reserve, and Royal Navy Air Se
navy introduced a policy of “unrestricted submarine warfare.”
This meant that German U-Boats would sink any Allied ships that
four months of the policy, Germany sank over 1000 British ships.
Britain had to find a way to solve this problem or it would be
starved into surrendering.
main contribution to the war at sea was to provide sailors and ships for the
Effects on Everyday Life
at home supported the troops overseas in many ways.
community groups and government campaigns suggest that no sacrifice should
be spared to ensure the victory of Europe.
planted victory gardens (to produce as much food as possible).
were sending large amounts of food to fighting forces of all other allied
home people were trying to waste nothing and reduce own food consumption.
in Saskatchewan were often dismissed from school early to replace the farm
workers who were over seas.
of woman meet to organize fund raisers and roll bandages for the troops.
community held card games, dances and variety shows.
were used to send soap, writing paper, pencils and candy to the troops.
The Economics of War
war was costing Canada over one million dollars a day.
bonds were also used to help pay for the cost of war.
the war the ponds could be cashed for a profit.
and commercial investors loaned over one billion to the government
bought stamps at 25 cents
four dollars worth of stamps, would receive a war savings stamp.
stamp could be cashed in for 5 dollars in 1924.
government practiced income tax during the world war I to help finace the
production dramatic new heights.
shell and ship factories sprang up across the country.
- 300,000 Canadians were employed.
third of the shells fired by the armies of the British Empire were made in
Woman During the War Years
changed the lives of Canadian woman.
the beginning of the war, hundreds of Canadian women volunteered to work
overseas as nurses or ambulance drivers.
ten nights the woman of Canada did 291 operations.
worked in ammunition factories and in other war industries while the men
were away at war, this meant that the number of woman working rose very
high. This was unusual to see women working.
worked in banks, on police forces and in civil services jobs. They also
drove buses and street cars.
were very few men left so women on farms brought in the harvests and they
also got help from city woman who were recruited to go and help them.
woman arranged different forms of entertainment to raise funds to help send
parcels to troops.
of all ages met regularly to knit socks and roll bandages for solders.
Struggle for Women’s Rights
women were doing so much for the war effort, they wanted a share in making
decisions about the country, and it was during WWI that an important step
forward was taken in Canada for Women’s Rights.
the beginning of the 20th Cnetury, women in many countries had
begun to organize themselves to gain the right to vote. The members of this
movement in Canada were called Suffragists.
of Canada’s great social reformers and Suffragists was Nellie McClung.
held that when WWI broke out, it helped to prove that certainly women belong
in the house, but not 24hrs a day; they should have the same rights and
freedoms as men.
war brought women together in volunteer organizations and employment;
they began to share ideas, work for political equality with men, and
they took active roles in journalism and campaigned for better public
health, working conditions, and wages.
They also pushed for equal opportunities in careers such as medicine
and law, and for the right to own property.
campaigned enthusiastically for women’s Suffrage (the right to vote).
The first breakthrough came in Manitoba in 1916 – women were given
the right to vote in the Province. Within
a few months, Saskatchewan , Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario had
granted Women’s Suffrage.
main goal was to win the right to vote in Federal Elections.
In the election of December 1917, the Wartime Elections Act granted
the vote to the mothers, sisters etc. of men who were fighting overseas.
By the time the war ended, the right to vote had been extended to
almost all women in Canada over the age of 21.
Dominion Elections Act gave women the right to run for election in
parliament in 1920. Native
women and most native men were not allowed to vote.
the beginning of the war, people were very patriotic and wanted to help in
any way that they could. As a
result, Canada was flooded with volunteers willing to enlist in the army.
the war progressed, people became less enthusiastic about helping, and the
number of volunteers decreased.
1917, Prime Minister Robert Borden visited Canadian soldiers at the front
and was shocked by what he heard: Canadian Volunteer enlistments were not
keeping up with the number of men killed or wounded in battle.
officials desperately needed more soldiers and they asked Borden to send
more Canadian troops to Europe.
Borden returned home he asked the parliament to pass a Conscription Bill.
means that “all able bodied men would be required (i.e forced) to join the
army.” Enlistment would no
longer be a choice.
The Election of 1917
an election coming in December 1917, the government passed two bills: The
Military Voters Act and the Wartime Elections Act.
Military Voters Act allowed soldiers overseas to vote in elections at home
Wartime Elections Act gave females living in Canada who were relatives of
soldiers fighting in Europe the right to vote.
Union Government was formed by Conservatives and Liberals that believed in
election was brutal
Laurier and his followers were accused of letting down the soldiers at
Borden and the Union Government won the election, although they got only
three seats in Quebec.
The split that had feared
for so long seemed to have happened – riots occurred in Montreal and Quebec
City; the French and English Canadians were entirely torn apart.
In November, 1918, at the
end of the war, Canada was a divided nation.
and the Rumrunners
The “Roaring Twenties” (1920s) had new forms of
entertainment that were available to almost everyone (ex: movies, radio, dance
clubs, and cars).
There was also much crime, corruption, and extreme
poverty for some people.
in Canada in 1916 and 1917 during World War I.
It made the production and sale of alcohol illegal.
The Women’s Christian Temperance Union worked to ban
the use of intoxicating liquor.
They argued that the grain should be used to feed
soldiers and civilians. Also, money
was needed to feed families instead of being spent on drink.
Even when prohibition was introduced you could still
find “bootleg booze”, which was illegal liquor made and sold by organized
bootleggers (ex: Rocco Perri). There
were even private clubs called “speakeasies.”
Some Canadian rumrunners made fortunes smuggling
Canadian liquor south of the border to the US.
Almost $1 million of liquor crossed from Windsor to Detroit each month.
Prohibition had some positive social effects such as
the decrease in crime and arrests for drunkenness. More workers took their pay cheques home instead of to the
taverns. Industrial efficiency
improved because fewer work days were missed.
Provincial governments realized they were losing money
in potential taxes on liquor sales and people argued that legalizing liquor
under strict government controls would be easier to enforce than total
Prohibition. Gradually, individual
provinces dropped Prohibition throughout the 1920s. (PEI was last to eliminate this law in 1948.)
Wartime industries (ex: munitions factories) closed
down after the war.
Workers were laid off and women were under pressure to
return to house-hold duties so that men could have jobs, even though it was
really hard for them to find work.
Many war veterans were unemployed and bitter because
they wondered why there were no jobs for them in the country that they had just
fought to defend.
They also resented the fact that some business people
at home had made huge profits in war industries while they risked their lives in
Europe. They felt that they at
least deserved a chance to make an honest living.
Rapid inflation became a problem around 1919.
The prices of basic items such as food and clothing had increased
greatly, while wages had not.
The cost of living had more than doubled from 1914 to
Workers and returning soldiers joined unions to fight
for better living and working conditions.
Workers (miners, machinists, steelworkers, loggers,
etc...) across the country staged strikes.
Winnipeg General Strike of 1919
One of the most important and dramatic strikes in
Trade workers voted to strike; 30 000 others walked off
the job as well.
Almost all industries and key services were shut down.
Ottawa sent Mounties and soldiers to put down the
June 21, a day known as Bloody Saturday violence
erupted in Winnipeg.
Shots were fired by mounted police and one striker was
Strike leaders were forced not to become union members
or become involved in union activities.
A Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the
causes of the strike.
Some were forced not to become union members or become
involved in any union activities.
H.A. Robson, head of the Commission, concluded that the
strike was caused by high cost of living, poor working conditions, and low
Labourers turned to politics to make their voices
heard. Many were elected to all
levels of government in the 1920s.
Investment in Canada
At the beginning of the 20th century, the
biggest foreign investors in Canada were British.
Less was invested into industrial enterprises because
of the uncertainty of profit so they invested into Canadian Government Bonds and
Because of WWI, British investment fell off so the
Americans moved in as Canada’s #1 foreign investor.
Americans put money into the expanding areas of the
Canadian Economy such as Mining, Pulp and Paper, and Hydro-electric power.
While the British usually let Canadians run the
businesses their own way, Americans introduced the Branch Plant System.
That is, branch plants were set up in Canada that functioned under the
direction of parent companies in the US. This
allowed American companies to place a Made in Canada tag on its products
and avoid the high tariffs charged for shipping products across the border.
Many saw this as manifest destiny realized –
top management jobs were held by Americans and profits earned by the Canadian
branch plants were sent back to the United States.
Some people were afraid that Americans would completely
take over Canada’s economic system.
Effects of the Boom Years
result of the industrial boom in the 1920’s was that Canadians gradually
regained confidence in their country.
mood was generally optimistic and people were willing to take risks.
success stories inspired ordinary citizens to believe that they too could
get rich by two dollar bets on horses, investing in stocks and bonds and
hockey pools. These were all seen as ways for the ordinary working man and
woman to strike it rich quickly.
Politics of the 1920’s
In July 1920 Arthur Meighen
a conservative, was sworn in as prime minister of Canada.
He took over from sir Robert
Borden who had resigned.
French Canadians were still
seething over the conscription crisis of 1917.
Martimers were demanding
more jobs and better conditions. Prairie farmers were suffering from a post war
slump and they claimed that high tariffs increased their costs of operation.
Farmers also demanded that the railways be taken over by that government and the
The man who became prime
minister for most of the 1920s was destined to be the most successful political
leader of his age and that man was the grandson of William Lyon Mackenzie the
leader of the rebellion in upper Canada.
For almost 30 years William
Lyon Mackenzie King dominated the liberal part and political life in Canada. He
was Canada’s longest serving prime minister (so the book says).
On the surface, King seemed
to possess few qualities that would attract large numbers of voters. Some of
these qualities were:
-He was a pudgy man, some say
“dumpy” in appearance.
-He was cautious and careful and
-He had strong interest in
spiritualism and sometimes through mediums
and séances tried to contact the dead.
political genus lay in making liberal policies acceptable to various groups
and regions across the nation.
often put off reaching a decision until he worked out comprises among the
Canada’s Growing Independence
1926, all the countries of the British Empire met at an Imperial Conference.
King insisted that the delegates talk about the powers of the
dominions and the nature of their relationships to each other and to
the conference, Canada and the other dominions were declared self-governing
while at the same time remaining a part of a Commonwealth of Nations.
the statute of Westminster, Canada became fully independent in all but two
still had to ask the British Parliament to amend the Canadian Constitution
Privy Council was set up temporarily to manage serious court cases until
Canada could get its own court system up to par.
was understood that both legal arrangements would be ended when Canadians
agreed on the powers to be held by the Provincial and Federal Governments.
Women and the Persons Case
in Canada had won the right to vote in Federal elections by 1918 but still
did not enjoy all of the privileges that men had.
famous Persons Case underlined the inequality women still faced.
groups asked the Prime Minister to appoint a woman to the Senate.
BNA Act stated that qualified persons could received appointments but
the question was raised was a woman a “person” in the eyes of the
law? Was a woman qualified
for the appointment to the Senate?
Famous Five (Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Henrietta
Edwards, and Irene Parlby) put up a huge fight to gain acceptance for women
in the Senate and by the Canadian law.
a long battle, the Supreme Court of Canada declared that the word persons
did not refer to women. Therefore,
a woman was not a person and thus not able to sit on the Senate.
discouraged, the Famous Five appealed to the only court higher than the
Canada Supreme Court – the Privy Council in Britain.
three months, the Privy Council announced its decision – the word persons
did indeed refer to women as well as men. The Famous Five had won!
thought that Emily Murphy ought to have been the first woman elected to the
Senate but another woman, Cairine Wilson of Montreal was appointed instead.
Struggles of Native Peoples
the 1920s and 30s, Natives struggled to keep their own culture and heritage.
wanted them to give up their traditional ways and be absorbed into Canadian
(white) culture (assimilation).
Native ceremonies were banned.
people who tried to live off reserves faced discrimination and prejudice.
few good job opportunities.
-- League of Indians formed by Fred Loft.
-- Would draw attention to the economic and social problems facing their
people. This league demanded that
Natives should get the right to vote without giving up their special status.
– Some west coast Natives were thrown in jail for taking part in a potloch
ceremony. Masks and other
sacred objects were seized by police.
– Native Brotherhood of British Columbia was created to defend Native
peoples’ land, hunting and fishing rights.
– Children were sent to special boarding schools hundreds of kilometers
from their homes. Their own
traditions were not taught and they weren’t allowed to speak in their own
native language. This caused
many Native children to loose touch with their traditions and families as
Since the economy was on the
upswing in the 1920s, many people indulged in non-essential items.
Inventions like the radio, the mass production of automobiles, talking
films and air travel were being invented. Fads
and fashions were not in the reach of everyone but Canadians were moving into
the modern age.
Fads and Fashions
people became interested in dancing, fashion, games, sports and other
are crazes that don’t last long.
of these fads was a Chinese game called Mahjong. This game was all the raze and many people ordered
Chinese furniture, robes and other Chinese objects to accentuate the
experience. This fad wore off
craze was crossword puzzles. Everyone
wanted them. Dictionary sales
soared and some railways had them to entertain their passengers.
marathons were also popular. People
used smelling salts and ice packs to keep themselves awake.
of the 20s sported a flapper look. In
winter, they wore galoshes with buckles unfastened to create the greatest
possible flap. They wore
dresses above their knees and their stockings were rolled down.
They also chopped their hair in a bobbed style.
wore baggy pants, bright, snappy hats and bow ties.
Their hair was greased down and parted in the middle.
of the most obvious signs of prosperity in the 1920s was the growth of the
Ford wanted to make cheap, affordable machines that everyone could afford.
applied car manufacturing mass production.
set up an assembly line. Machines
were placed in a line-up where one part would be added at a time.
The first assembly lines required that the workers move from place to
place. Later, there was a
conveyor belt which moved the cars along, allowing the workers to remain in
a single spot.
the machine reached the end of the line it was finished and ready to be
worker on the assembly line had a different job. Some put on parts, while others fastened or secured
them. Each car had all the same
parts, making all of them alike.
automobile was one of the biggest changes in the way of living in the 1920s.
could go to see relatives 20km away and still be home for supper.
the automobile, many people had summer cabins or traveled on vacations.
Most cars included a crank to start the engine and a rope (in case
they got stuck… which was very unpleasant on a vacation).
began to spring-up. Industries
were making and selling gasoline, rubber, glass, paint etc.
cabins and hotels were being set up along the major roads.
automobiles also were used for work, such as hauling freight from farms and
were now able to live further from their jobs (helping to alleviate some of
the problems caused by urbanization).
automobile also caused problems: it
polluted the air, caused traffic jams, and brought death to thousands of
people each year.
addition, criminals also took advantage of the automobile… when they
robbed an establishment, they could now make faster getaways.
Jazz moved north from New Orleans in the US and was
made popular by such musicians as Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong.
the dance of the decade that emerged out of African American culture.
Canadian aces, who returned from World War I, bought
surplus biplanes and “barnstormed” across the country.
They would perform daring stunts over country fairs.
Eventually, the public and government began to see the
possibilities of air travel.
Bush pilots helped to open northern frontiers of Canada
by flying prospectors and supplies into mineral-rich areas.
The post office hired pilots to fly mail into remote areas in 1927.
Charles A. Lindbergh completed the first non-stop
transatlantic flight from New York to Paris, which signalled the possibility of
long-distance air travel.
The Silver Screen
“Talkies”, which were talking films, arrived in Canada in
The stars of these films were idolized and they
provided excitement to people (ex: Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino, &
Mary Pickford was called “America’s Sweetheart.”
She came to represent the luxury and wealth the film industry brought to
By the end of the decade, there were more than 900
movie houses across Canada. Movie-going
was the most popular form of entertainment at this time.